we conclude with our reflections on the crucial features of iot solutions in this setting and a discussion of challenges that remain open for research. in section 6, we discuss crucial features of iot solutions for supporting the highlighted smart environments, and we elaborate on the main remaining challenges. furthermore, most advanced services also need information about the inhabitants that can be obtained by a combination of environmental and wearable sensors, possibly those embedded in the users’ personal devices such as smartphones for example. fall is a highly studied subject in the last years and one of the main uses of iot and smart environments for health-related applications [53,67]. finally, other kinds of solutions exist and for instance  presents a solution that is based on radar sensors that are integrated to the home. the final goal of all the solutions of smart sensors and environments for health is to help prevent or assist the person that has to face a specific condition. finally, in case of dependence, robots can be of help for the person to allow measurement and monitoring, and more importantly, to create a presence for the person and bring help in case of specific needs . it is thus no surprise that the interoperability of technological solutions and standards are of utmost importance, especially in the field of the internet of things, which is widely recognized as a key technological enabler of smart cities . rfid is the umbrella term in common use which covers a variety of distinct technologies using a wide range of frequencies, communication protocols, and device types. in the case of sgtin-96 codes for example, the code will include the company prefix identifying the manufacturer of the particular product, the item reference identifying the product type and finally a serial number that is unique to the particular product item. the main features of these technologies are summarized in table 4. ieee 802.15.4 is a family of wireless technologies intended to enable monitoring and control applications for wireless personal area network (wpan). like other lpwan technologies, it is based on the star topology, and a communication range in the order of 10 s of kms is achievable . in order to obtain the maximum benefit from sensors and actuators, they need to be connected to the internet, which allows the highest degree of flexibility (i.e. for this reason, the ietf engaged in 2005 in a decade-long process to define adaptations, optimizations and new protocols for a first version of an ipv6-based lightweight protocol stack for constrained devices. in the first part of this section, we identify and reflect on crucial features of iot solutions and then proceed to discuss the main challenges for the applications of these iot solutions in smart environments. at the other end of the spectrum, cnn technologies used in smart factories are typically based on ieee 802.15.4e tsch, which appears to be dominant in this setting.
in smart cities, a combination of cloud and fog computing provides a suitable approach. indeed, with latency requirements in the range of milliseconds, timely data processing is key for industrial control and manufacturing applications. for instance, for devices measuring heart rate and activity, does an episode of fever, that will increase the heart rate, have to be considered as relevant for the adaptation of the thresholds of detections of anomalies in the values? analyzing the way a person lives within the smart environment to detect such discrepancies in the data is still very costly but important for the experience of the user and the usability of the systems. we note that the exchange of data allowed by iot technologies and systems is a starting point for creating smart environments powered by artificial and ambient intelligence . hu, wireless sensor networks: a survey on the state of the art and the 802.15. s.-l. chua, s. marsland and h. guesgen, a supervised learning approach for behaviour recognition in smart homes, journal of ambient intelligence and smart environments 8(3) (2016), 259–271. an updated look at the state of the art, pervasive and mobile computing 3(2) (2007), 53–73. f. furfari, m. girolami, s. lenzi and s. chessa, a service-oriented zigbee gateway for smart environments, journal of ambient intelligence and smart environments 6(6) (2014), 691–705. kabir, m. hossain and k.-s. kwak, the internet of things for health care: a comprehensive survey, ieee access 3 (2015), 678–708. m. krivỳ, towards a critique of cybernetic urbanism: the smart city and the society of control, planning theory (2016). c. kürschner, c. condea, o. kasten and f. thiesse, discovery service design in the epcglobal network, in: the internet of things, springer, 2008, pp. journal of ambient intelligence and smart environments 2012. p. o’donovan, k. leahy, k. bruton and d.t. barrios-león, a service robot for monitoring elderly people in the context of ambient assisted living, journal of ambient intelligence and smart environments 6(6) (2014), 595–621. n. streitz, beyond ‘smart-only’ cities: redefining the ‘smart-everything’ paradigm, journal of ambient intelligence and humanized computing. r. velik, a brain-inspired multimodal data mining approach for human activity recognition in elderly homes, journal of ambient intelligence and smart environments 6(4) (2014), 447–468. j. zawieska and j. pieriegud, smart city as a tool for sustainable mobility and transport decarbonisation, transport policy 63 (2018), 39–50.
an implementation of the iot is one that focuses on a specific area of usage in smart worlds, for example smart buildings, smart cities, smart retail, and smart industry. the biggest challenge in smart environments is the massive amounts of data that need to be sifted, monitored, analyzed, and proactively used to create solutions for everyday challenges. smart environmental monitoring provides information to create sustainable guidelines for the regulation of mission-critical systems like energy and transport grids; food security ecosystems like agriculture and marine biology; and water and waste management processes. in a wsn system, a large collection of sensors, for example a mesh network, is used to gather and send data through a router to the internet in an iot system.
an example of a wsn is a network of wireless sensors that monitor rainfall in an area and that may or may not be connected to a smart environment network. the inability to manage and monitor iot systems due to inexperience and a lack of best practice guidelines is exacerbated in companies where the iot systems lack maturity and employees lack specialist iot experience. the approach of prtg to environmental monitoring combines conditional monitoring and contextual monitoring. since 1997, we offer monitoring solutions for businesses across all industries and all sizes, from smb to large enterprises.
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